Sencha, pictured here, is by far the most popular type of green tea in Japan. Like most Japanese green teas, it is steamed after harvest. This Japanese green tea is an 'Asamushi' (lightly steamed) Sencha. It has a much lighter, more refreshing flavor than 'Fukamushi' (deep-steamed) Sencha. Both styles of Sencha have flavors that are often described as oceanic and vegetal.
Some Japanese green teas (notably Gyokuro) are shade-grown. Shade growing gives the tea a richer flavor, darker (almost bluish-pine) color and higher levels of certain nutrients, including caffeine and vitamin C.
Matcha is a powdered form of Japanese green tea. It is also made from shade-grown leaves. It is an extremely concentrated form of tea, so it is much higher in nutrients than most other teas.
Some Japanese steamed green teas are made from twigs, which are low in caffeine.
Steamed green teas are sometimes made outside of Japan, usually in an attempt to mimic the flavor of Japanese green tea, and sometimes to make counterfeit Japanese Sencha.
Some Japanese green teas are fired or roasted rather than steamed. Roasted or fired Japanese green teas include Hojicha (or 'Houjicha') and Kyobancha.