is a type of tea
with a fruity, delicate flavor. It is known for being high in antioxidants and low in caffeine
White Tea vs. Green Tea & Black Tea
Many people switch from black tea or green tea
to white tea for health or taste reasons. If you're used to drinking green tea or black tea, you will find that white tea can be very different in its appearance, flavor, preparation and price.
Whereas most green and black teas
are made from mature tealeaves
, white tea is made entirely or mostly from the 'buds' (or immature, unopened tealeaves) of the tea plant
. The buds should look white and fuzzy. This appearance is often referred to as looking 'downy' because it resembles the appearance of fine down feathers. These 'hairs' on the tea buds are a natural mechanism the white tea plant uses to protect its new tea buds from insects.
Green tea is usually vegetal and either sweet or bittersweet. Black tea is usually bold, dark and fruity. White tea is very different from both of these tea types
-- it has a delicate, fruity taste. Some white teas are very floral, while others have notes of hay or milk chocolate. Flavored white teas are also available, and are commonly blended or flavored with fruit, flowers and herbs (such as mint). For more on the flavors of different teas, see this article on Tea Flavor Profiles by Tea Type
Preparing white tea correctly is easier than making green tea well, but slightly harder than steeping a good cup of black tea. To make white tea, use water that is under 190 degrees Fahrenheit and steep for three to five minutes. White tea is fairly flexible on its brewing times
(I know some people who steep it for seven minutes!). Its brewing temperature
needs to be well below boiling, but it isn't as finicky as green tea, and won't be ruined if the water temperature is a few degrees off.
When you are buying white tea, you may also notice that it tends to be more expensive than many black teas and some green teas. This is because real white tea must be hand harvested from the tiny, young leaves of the tea plant. This process is very time consuming and costly, so white tea is more expensive. (Also, it is rarer, which creates more scarcity and drives up the price.)
White Tea's Origins & History
White tea originated in Fujian, China, in the 1700s. It has been made in Fujian since then, and was mostly consumed in China.
Around they year 2000, a study came out about white tea varietals. (Tea varietals are specific types of tea plants.) There are two white tea varietals, and they were shown to be low in caffeine and high in antioxidants. This study launched white tea into international popularity, and encouraged tea producers in India, Sri Lanka and other tea production regions
to start making white tea based on white tea processing (which is outlined below). However, these white teas are made with different tea varietals, so they are not usually as high in antioxidants or low in caffeine as white tea from Fujian.
White Tea Processing
White tea is made from the 'buds' and sometimes the leaves of the tea plant. White tea is often described as 'minimally processed' and 'unoxidized.' It is minimally processed -- it is basically plucked and then 'withered' (exposed to low-level warmth to reduce its water content) and dried (with sunlight or hot air). However, it is slightly oxidized during this process.
It is also worth noting that, while the processing is 'minimal,' it is not easy. White tea producers need to have a lot of skill to make great white tea, and they have to adapt to unpredictable weather conditions to harvest and process the tea at the optimal time.
White Tea's Caffeine Content
White tea is generally thought to be very low in caffeine.* This is true for white tea from Fujian, China, because white tea from this region is from a tea plant that is naturally low in caffeine. However, white tea from other places is not necessarily low in caffeine. In fact, one tea and caffeine study
showed that Indian tea can be even higher in caffeine than Ceylon black tea! While white tea from Fujian may contain as little as six to 25 mg of caffeine per cup, other white teas may be closer to 60 mg per cup. Similarly, the claims that white tea is especially high in antioxidants relate to a study on white tea from Fujian, and may not apply to other types of white tea.
For more information on white tea and caffeine (including why some white teas are so high in caffeine), read this article on Factors Influencing Caffeine Levels in Tea
* Some people refer to white tea as 'decaffeinated' or 'caffeine free,' but this is incorrect. White tea naturally contains caffeine or, as some people (incorrectly) term it 'caffeinated.' (Caffeinated actually means that caffeine was added. No caffeine was added to white tea -- it is naturally occurring.)
Types of White Tea
There are many types of white tea on the market. These include Silver Needle White Tea
(a bud-only white tea), Bai Mu Dan / White Peony White Tea
(a white tea made from leaves and buds), Darjeeling White Tea
(a white tea from India), Ceylon White Tea (from Sri Lanka) and blended or flavored white teas.